Vitamin A (Beta Carotene) is necessary for repair and growth
of body tissues. It is used in the treatment of vision problems, breast cancer,
and skin wrinkling. (Ross A.C., Ternus M.E., Vitamin A as a hormone: recent
advances in understanding the actions of retinol, retinoic acid, and beta carotene.
J Am Diet Assoc; 93(11): 1285-90, Nov 1993).
Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin) benefits the heart and cardiovascular
system. It is also important for growth, energy production and digestion. In
a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial utilizing 222 people aged
65 or over, researchers concluded that the quality of life was enhanced by providing
thiamin supplements. Blood pressure and weight were lower after thiamin supplementation.
(Wilkinson TJ; Hanger HC; Elmslie J; George PM; Sainsbury R. The response to
treatment of subclinical thiamine deficiency in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr;
66(4): 925-8, Oct 1997).
Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) is important for healthy skin, tissue
repair and red blood cell formation.
Niacinimide (Vitamin B-3) improves circulation and reduces
cholesterol levels in the blood.
Pantothenic Acid helps convert proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
into energy, improves the body's resistance to stress.
Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) promotes healthy gums, teeth, red
blood cells, and is necessary for synthesis of amino acids.
PABA (Para Amino Benzoic Acid) plays a key role in skin pigmentation
and hair color.
Vitamin B-12 (Cobalamin) helps prevent anemia by aiding in
formation of red blood cells.
Folic Acid is important for red cell production, tissue cells,
and a healthy intestinal tract.
Biotin (Vitamin H) promotes healthy hair and skin. It plays
a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. (Mock,
D.M. Biotin. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition (Ziegler, E.E. and Filer, L.
J., eds.), 7th ed., pp. 220-235. International Life Sciences Institute Press,
Washington, DC, 1996).
Choline is an essential nutrient needed for cell membrane
integrity. It plays a significant role in controlling fat and cholesterol. It
is also a component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and is needed for
normal brain functioning.
Inositol is required for proper formation of cell membranes.
It affects nerve transmission and helps in transporting fats within the body.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) helps build resistance to infections,
aids in the prevention of the common cold, prevents scurvy, and is critical
to the maintenance of healthy gums, skin, and blood. It is a major antioxidant,
and plays a significant role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). According Matthias
Rath M.D. and Linus Pauling Ph.D: "…ascorbate deficiency is the common
cause of human CVD, ascorbate supplementation is the universal treatment for
this disease. The available epidemiological and clinical evidence is reasonably
convincing. Further clinical confirmation of this theory should lead to the
abolition of CVD as a cause of human mortality for the present generation and
future generations of mankind." (The Linus Pauling/Matthias Rath Unified
Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease On-line paper published in the J. of
Orthomolecular Medicine; http://www.orthomed.org/links/papers/rathpau.htm).
Vitamin D benefits teeth, bones, and optimizes calcium and
Vitamin E is a major antioxidant and delays cellular aging
due to oxidation. It protects cell membranes and tissues, and brings nourishment
to cells. (Meydani, S. N., Meydani, M., Blumberg, J. B., Leka, L. S., Siber,
G., Loszewski, R., Thompson, C., Pedrosa, M. C., Diamond, R. D., Stollar, B.
D. Vitamin E supplementation enhances in vivo immune response in healthy elderly:
A dose-response study. JAMA. 277: 1380-1386, 1997)
Calcium promotes bone and teeth health, and assists in the
passage of nutrients in and out of cell walls. Please see Bone Strengthener
Plus for additional information. Calcium and Vitamin D supplementation in the
elderly helps reduce the incidence of fractures. (Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris,
S.S., Krall, E. A. & Dallal, G. E. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation
on bone density in men and women age 65 and older. New Engl. J. Med. 337: 670-676,
Chromium is important for carbohydrate metabolism. It works
with insulin in the metabolism and stabilization of blood sugar levels. (Stoecker,
B. J., Chromium. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition (Ziegler, E. E. & Filer,
L. J., Jr., eds.), 7th ed., pp. 344-352. International Life Sciences Institute
Press, Washington, DC., 1996).
Copper is necessary for the absorption and utilization of
iron. Copper deficiency may also play a role in heart disease. (Medeiros, D.
M. & Wildman, R., New findings on a unified perspective of copper restriction
and cardiomyopathy. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 215: 299-313, 1997).
Iodine aids in the functioning of the thyroid gland. "Comparative
epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled
studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence
of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an
extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially
women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting."
(Laurberg P., Nohr S.B., Pedersen K.M., Hreidarsson A.B., Andersen S., Bulow
Pedersen I., Knudsen N., Perrild H., Jorgensen T., and Ovesen L. Thyroid disorders
in mild iodine deficiency. Department of Endocrinology and Medicine, Aalborg
Hospital, Denmark. Thyroid; 10(11): 951-63, Nov 2000).
Iron combines with protein and copper in manufacturing hemoglobin
which transports oxygen in the blood from the lungs to the tissues. Iron deficiency
results in anemia. A recent study indicates that the prevalence of iron deficiency
anemia is higher in athletic populations and groups, especially in younger female
athletes, than in healthy sedentary individuals. The young female athlete may
want to consider use of low-dose iron supplements to prevent a decline in iron
status during training. (Beard J., Tobin B. Iron status and exercise. Am J Clin
Nutr. 72(2 Suppl): 594S-7S,Aug 2000).
Magnesium is a mineral needed by every cell of the body. Magnesium
is needed for at least 300 fundamental enzymatic reactions in the body. It helps
maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, and bones
strong. It is also involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Evidence
suggests that magnesium may play an important role in regulating blood pressure.
(Paolisso, G. and Barbagallo, M. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin
resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium. Amer. J. Hyperten. 10: 346-355,
Diets that provide plenty of fruits and vegetables, good sources of potassium
and magnesium, are consistently associated with lower blood pressure. Results
of two national surveys, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES III-1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals
(1994 CSFII), indicated that the diets of most adult men and women do not provide
the recommended amounts of magnesium.
Manganese is an essential trace mineral that is concentrated
primarily in the bone, liver, pancreas, and brain. It is necessary for proper
digestion, sex hormone production, and is a catalyst in the breakdown of fats
and cholesterol. It is also an important antioxidant. An animal study conducted
at the University of Maine found that manganese deficiency may affect arterial
wall integrity and subsequently cardiovascular health. (Yang P., and Klimis-Tavantzis
D.J. Effects of dietary manganese on arterial glycosaminoglycan metabolism in
Sprague-Dawley rats. Biol Trace Elem Res; 64(1-3): 275-88, Summer 1998).
Potassium is mostly found in muscle tissue. Deficiency symptoms
include irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and build -up of lactic acid.
Research also indicates that there may be a relationship between high blood
pressure and potassium depletion. A study conducted at the University of Arkansas
school for medical science concluded that; "An increase in potassium intake
should be included in the nonpharmacologic management of patients with uncomplicated
hypertension." (Barri Y.M. and Wingo C.S. The effects of potassium depletion
and supplementation on blood pressure: a clinical review. Am J Med Sci; 314(1):
37-40, Jul 1997).
Selenium is a major antioxidant and prevents free radical
generation, thus decreasing the risk of cancer. (Combs, G. F., Jr. & Gray,
W. P. Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacol. Expt. Therapeut. 79: 179-192,
1998). Other studies indicate that selenium deficiency may result in heart disease,
premature aging, dandruff, and loose skin.
Zinc is an antioxidant nutrient necessary for protein synthesis,
wound healing, male hormone production, and reproductive organ health. A recent
study at Michigan State University concluded that there is substantial evidence
that zinc supplementation may reduce the impact of many diseases, including;
sickle cell anemia, renal disease, and chronic gastrointestinal disorders.(Fraker
P.J., King L.E., Laakko T., Vollmer T.L. The dynamic link between the integrity
of the immune system and zinc status, J Nutr; 130(5S Suppl): 1399S-406S, May
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) are
the genetic materials that serve as the blueprints for the formation of new
Bioflavonoids are a class of water-soluble plant pigments.
They are divided into the following subcategories: isoflavones, anthocyanins,
flavans, favonols, flavones, and flavanones. Some bioflavonoids support health
as anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and antiviral agents.
Quercetin is bioflavonoid and has been reported to aid in
problems associated with diabetes.
Rutin is another bioflavonoid that appears to protect blood
Hesperidin is an antioxidant that works best when given with
Vitamin C and other bioflavinoids.
Eriocitrin is a flavonoid glycoside present in lemons. It
plays an important antioxidant role.
Bromelain is a Pineapple enzyme that promotes healing of injured
Papain is an enzyme extracted from the juice of unripe papaya
fruit. It is used to treat inflammations and accelerates wound healing.
Betaine HCI is the carboxylic acid derived by oxidation of
choline. The hydrochloride salt is used as a gastric acidifier.
Apple Pectin is used in the pharmaceutical industry to reduce
blood cholesterol levels and gastrointestinal disorders.
Amylase is an enzyme that aids in digestion. It is also involved
in anti-inflammatory reactions such as those caused by the release of histamine
and similar substances
Lipase Fat is any enzyme that helps to digest dietary fats.
It is produced by the pancreas and released into the small intestine, where
it helps digest fat.
Chlorophyll is the substance responsible for the green color
in plants. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties.
Carotenoids are the major yellow and red pigments in many
fruits and vegetables. It has antioxidant and immune-enhancing properties.
Black Currant Seed is rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA).
It has anti-inflammatory properties and an immune-enhancing effect. (Wu D.,
Meydani M., Leka LS., Nightingale Z., Handelman G. J., Blumberg J.B., Meydani
S. Effect of dietary supplementation with black currant seed oil on the immune
response of healthy elderly subjects Am J Clin Nutr; 70(4): 536-43, Oct 1999).
Sunflower Oil contains linoleic acid, which may aid in reducing
Spirulina (Blue-green algae) is rich in protein. It also contains
carotenoids, vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids.
Bee Pollen has been shown to have several beneficial applications
for human use. Pollen has been successfully used for treatment of some cases
of benign prostatitis, and allergy desensitization.
Siberian Ginseng has been shown to enhance mental acuity and
physical endurance without the let down that comes with caffeinated products.
(Farnsworth N.R., Kinghorn A.D., Soejarto D.D., Waller D.P.Siberian ginseng
(Eleutheroecoccus senticosus): Current status as an adaptogen. Economic and
Medicinal Plant Research, vol 1, ed. H Wagner, HZ Hikino, NR Farnsworth. London:
Academic Press, 155-215, 1985).
Octacosanol is a waxy substance found in some plant oils.
It is the primary component of sugar cane extract called policosanol which has
been reported to lower LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) while
raising HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol) levels. (Castano
G., Tula L., Canetti M., et al. Effects of policosanol in hypertensive patients
with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res;57:691-95, 1996).
Astragalus stimulates the immune system. It appears to increase
the number of stem cells in the marrow and lymph tissue, and stimulates their
development into active immune cells.
Ligustrum is the main active compound in the plant Ligustrin.
Lingustrum is often combined with Astralagus to stimulate the immune system.
Schisandra is often used to reduce fatigue, improve work performance,
and build strength. (Foster S., and Yue C.X. Herbal Emissaries: Bringing Chinese
Herbs to the West. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 146-52, 1992).
Young Barley Leaves have a cleansing and detoxifying effect
on the body. Young Barley Leaves are high in vitamins, minerals, live enzymes,
anti-oxidants, amino acids and chlorophyll.
Echinacea is used to prevent and treat the common cold, influenza
and infections. (Barrett, B., Vohmann, M., and Calabrese, C.The Journal of Family
Practice, Vol. 48, No. 8, pp. 628-635, 1999).
Irish Moss also known as Carrageen and Pearl Moss, is a seaweed
that grows off the coast of France and Ireland. It is used to sooth the gastrointestinal
Thyme, other than its use as a spice, acts as an antispasmotic
and is used in the treatment of dry, spasmodic coughs as well as bronchitis.
Ames B.N. Micronutrient Deficiencies: A Major Cause of DNA Damage. Ann N y
Acad Sci; 889:87-106, 1999.
Bland JS. Phytonutrition, phytotherapy, and phytopharmacology. Altern Ther
Health Med;2(6):73-6, Nov 1996.
Castano G., Tula L., Canetti M., et al. Effects of policosanol in hypertensive
patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res;57:691-95, 1996.
Cichoke AJ. The effect of systemic enzyme therapy on cancer cells and the immune
system. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients ; 30-32, Nov 1995.
Connor SL, Connor WE. The importance of dietary cholesterol in coronary heart
disease. Prev Med ;12:115-23, 1983.
Drewnowski A., Gomes- Carneros C. Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer:
a review Am J Clin Nutr: 72(6): 1424-35, Dec 2000.
Fraker P.J., King L.E., Laakko T., Vollmer T.L. The dynamic link between the
integrity of the immune system and zinc status, J Nutr; 130(5S Suppl): 1399S-406S,
Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinol
in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst;87:1767-76, 1995.
Hollman PC, Katan MB. Absorption, metabolism and health effects of dietary
flavonoids in man. Biomed Pharmacother;51:305-10, 1997.
Kuo SM. Antiproliferative potency of structurally distinct dietary flavonoids
on human colon cancer cells.Cancer Lett ;110:41-48, 1996.
Pike J, Chandra RK. Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on
immune indices in healthy elderly. Int J Vitam Nutr Res;65:117-21, 1995.
Ross A.C., Ternus M.E., Vitamin A as a hormone: recent advances in understanding
the actions of retinol, retinoic acid, and beta carotene. J Am Diet Assoc; 93(11):
1285-90, Nov 1993.
Vinson JA, Bose P. Comparative bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid alone
or in a citrus extract. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:601-4, 1988.
Wu D., Meydani M., Leka LS., Nightingale Z., Handelman G. J., Blumberg J.B.,
Meydani S. Effect of dietary supplementation with black currant seed oil on
the immune response of healthy elderly subjects Am J Clin Nutr; 70(4): 536-43,